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Virgil, Horace, and Livy , as noted above, imitated the writing of classical Greece, but chiefly in form, their tone and outlook being un-Hellenic. Like Sallust, Livy was inclined to idealize the severe virtues of republican Rome. Claudius , Roman emperor 41—54 ce , who extended Roman rule in North Africa and made Britain a province. Roman Hannibal In Hannibal: Historical sources on early Rome In ancient Rome: The struggle of the orders Rome In Rome: Government and administration Claudius In Claudius: Early life contribution to annalist literature In annalist View More.
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Rome and Italy
If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login. Thank you for your feedback. Same story as before. Romans bluffing together an empire. Aug 01, Marc added it Shelves: View all 3 comments.
May 30, Peter Aronson rated it really liked it. Livy lets himself a bit loose here, speculating what would have happened if Alexander the Great had attacked Rome surprise: May 30, Hal Johnson rated it really liked it Shelves: But what Livy has, mixed in with the tedium, are most wonderful stories. I of the Penguins , but it has such great bits as Valerius winning a duel with the help of a raven VII. The Samnites send a messenger back to to Samnium, to the sage and aged Herennius Pontius, asking him what they should do with the captive army.
His first advice is to let the Romans go, free and clear and with honor. When the Samnites say that sounds a little too generous for their tastes, H. The Samnites decide instead to let the army go free, but humiliated and yoked, and with harsh peace terms. Feb 21, Roger Burk rated it really liked it. Livy carries the story of Rome through the fourth century BC, starting with the recovery after the Gaulish sack in BC. At first, the wars seem to be mostly about restoring power over fractious allies and less about predatory wars on enemy cities.
Rome and Italy: The History of Rome from Its Foundation - Livy, Titus Livy - Google Книги
Even the Latins must sometimes be forced back into the fold, with some reluctance since they are identical to the Romans in language, laws, and customs. Later, there are nearly yearly campaigns against various other states, but above all against Sam Livy carries the story of Rome through the fourth century BC, starting with the recovery after the Gaulish sack in BC.
Later, there are nearly yearly campaigns against various other states, but above all against Samnites, trying to turn back encroachments on Rome's sphere of influence, or to extend that sphere. The strategy of war seems to be much like that of the previous century--encamp in enemy territory and plunder the countryside until the enemy army comes out and offers battle. All this is taking place while the Greeks cities vie to see who will lead them after the Peloponnesian War, while Macedon intervenes to settle the matter, while Alexander conquers Asia, and while his successors fight over his empire.
There are only a few initial brushes with Greek colonies. Pyrrhus has not yet arrived to save the Greeks in Italy from the Romans, and Carthage is still a remote power. The most striking event is a Samnite victory in BC, when they manage to trap the entire Roman army, including both consuls. The Romans are allowed to leave with their lives in exchange for a promise of peace, but they are stripped of everything except a single garment apiece, and made to pass one by one under a yoke of submission in front of the jeering Samnite army.
Then the disgraced and mournful mob is allowed to trudge back home. However, the Senate denounces the agreement, sends those who made it bound back to the Samnites, and carries on the war. Wanting to ensure victory, a consul asks the army's attending priest the right formula for sacrificing himself. He makes the prescribed prayer of self-dedication and offering, then charges in to find death among the enemy. That's how Livy tells it, and if it didn't happen that way, it should have.
During the height of the Samnite wars, the Romans seem to have great victories every year killing thousands or tens of thousands of Samnites, but the following year the Samnites seems to be just as ready for battle. Perhaps there is a math error in Livy's sources. Livy is sometimes critical of his sources, but he is limited to what he finds in them, which he can only repeat, with or without voicing reservations or giving both conflicting stories.
He seems to think that the Romans succeed partly because their soldiers are better trained and organized, and partly because of prudent and restrained policy maintained by the Senate. Restive subjects are sometimes given a fine, sometimes an offer of citizenship, sometimes imposition of a Roman garrison, sometimes annihilation and replacement with Roman colonists, according to the circumstances and to the mood of the Senate.
Towards the end of the period, deputations frequently arrive in Rome from other cities to ask for treaties of friendship. In political developments, there are two consuls every year--no more "military tribunes with consular powers," as was an option before the Gauls. When the military situation becomes alarming, or there is a particular religious need for one, a dictator is appointed for a period of months, or days.
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Despite their powers, both dictators and tribunes often defer to the judgment of the Senate. However, the plebeians are able to force some changes in the Roman constitution during this period. From BC one consul may be a pleb. In BC the plebs mutiny as an army, and the patricians buy peace and national unity by outlawing interest on loans, imposing term limits, and making plebeians eligible for both consulships though those elected continue to be almost always patricians.
In BC, the last exclusive privilege of the patricians is removed when plebs take on the religious functions of augurs and pontiffs. In BC, there is a limit enacted on the amount of land one could own. Also, the plebs are co-opted with the plunder and land of conquered peoples, and are sometimes sent out to found colonies among allies, though there is continuing dissatisfaction with the merciless laws on debt. The Romans hold the superstitious and bloody religious rites of the Samnians in contempt.
They are nothing like the Romans, whose major decisions are referred to the Keeper of the Sacred Chickens. This remarkable figure is able to translate the feeding behavior of his birds into advice on whether it is a propitious day for battle. This probably isn't the best place to start with Livy or the history of Rome, since it isn't from the beginning and therefore doesn't have some of the best, mythical stuff: But it's still pretty early, B. And most of it is fighting. Romans really believed in honor and glory, two things you can only get by being a successful warrior.
There's hardly any poetry, drama, art, sculpture, or This probably isn't the best place to start with Livy or the history of Rome, since it isn't from the beginning and therefore doesn't have some of the best, mythical stuff: There's hardly any poetry, drama, art, sculpture, or anything else but fighting.
The Romans fight their neighbors, people we don't talk much about anymore: Latins weird, I know , Etruscans, Volcisini, Sammites they fight these guys a lot , and heaps of others I can't remember. The Romans always win. They kill people, take them as slaves, ransom them, demand payment for their troops and city, and build temples to gods from the profits. The neighbors and rivals always end up rebelling, kill all the Romans in the colonies, and then the Roman put up an army again and go back to war.
There is interesting political stuff here. The Plebians want access to higher office, mainly as Consuls but also as religious leaders, the Patricians don't want to give it to them. The Plebians, over the the or so years of this volume, end up getting their way. Consuls are voted for, have 1 year in office, and then need to resign.
They are competitive with each other to get more victories, and when they do they come back to Rome and have a Triumph, basically a big party in the streets on their expense. And the coolest part, and I gather the most famous from the intro, is the speeches. These are really famous speeches, usually made by Consuls to their troops, to their rivals, to their enemies, to bickering politicians. They're famous for a reason, real examples of rhetorical brillance, I can't imagine they are real direct quotes, but can understand why they were studied for so long.
Livy is meant to be a great Latin writer. This I can't comment on, but the translation is good and smooth, the speeches are engaging, and though it isn't a easy read with endless battles, lots and lots of names of new Consuls every year, and the like, I really enjoyed it and got through it pretty quickly. May 02, M.
Early life and career
Milner rated it really liked it Shelves: The second volume of Livy's monumental history of Rome, Penguin's Rome and Italy covers a less famous period of history but is still a blast to read. It picks up where the first volume leaves off, just a couple years after the first Gallic sack of Rome, with a rebuilding Roman citystate and a bunch of other communities looking to shake off any obligation to Rome.
Soon these skirmishes blow into full-scale conflicts: Livy's history covers this century in detail as the Samnites de The second volume of Livy's monumental history of Rome, Penguin's Rome and Italy covers a less famous period of history but is still a blast to read. Livy's history covers this century in detail as the Samnites deal Rome a huge blow at the Caudine Forks, but fail to take Pontius' advice and make a powerful, resentful enemy.
The book follows these wars through their conclusion in the early 3rd century BC, when Roman armies routed the Samnites through the countryside. Okay then, so why read Livy and not a more contemporary historian? After all, his account is a little muddled at times and certainly far from objective. But aside from the charm of reading something written by and for the Romans, Livy's accounts are packed like a novel: When these armies clash, the Roman commander yells aloud and throws himself into a pile of soldiers.
The senate doesn't just disagree, they debate back and forth. There's even some sly humour about a group of Roman pipe-players who get tricked by a group of citizens.