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For one of these lectures, filmed June 8, , see World Bank[14]. The outdated terminology of a divided worldview is specifically challenged beginning at Five months later, the World Bank announced in a public blog post World Bank[15] that they had taken the challenge. They illustrated their decision with a version of the two boxes bubble graph used in this book.

From only a few years back the term appears in several headlines on their website: This illustrates one aspect of the problematic definitions. In Scandinavia, the official poverty lines are 20 times higher than the poverty lines in the poorest countries, like Malawi, even after adjusting for the large differences in purchasing power; see World Bank[17]. The social and economic challenges of being among the poorest in a rich country should not be neglected, but it is not the same thing as being in extreme poverty.

Voices of the Poor is a three volume publication from World Bank[12] of interviews with poor people across 47 countries. The interviews shed light on the existing differences between levels of poverty. It is clear that those who live in poverty are themselves well-aware of these differences. The overlapping spreads or ranges of numbers p.

The graphs showing people distributed by income, comparing Mexico and the United States in , are based on the same data as the four income levels, slightly adjusted to align with the shape of the distributions from the latest available national income surveys. By adjusting the exchange rates to consider price differences with PPP, the incomes are more comparable across countries.

The right chart uses a doubling scale for income, just like all other charts displaying income the book. This image shows what the shapes would look like if they were drawn on a linear scale. For more details see: At present, the average white household in South Africa can spend roughly five times more money than the average black household. During apartheid in the s, white people earned on average 12 times more than black people, according data from IRR. In the United States as of , white households earned on average 1. Hans grew up in Uppsala, Sweden, in the working class slum suburb of Eriksberg, next to the Ekeby brick factory.

The sewage problem in the early s was just as bad as it is in industrial slums on level 2 across the world today. Not until the s did this part of Uppsala get improved sanitation. The data about fatalities from terrorism comes from GTD and Gapminder[3] for data on terror deaths per income level.

In , terrorism worldwide reached its lowest annual death toll in two decades, with only 2, killed worldwide. It then began to increase over the next 12 years. By , terrorism multiplied tenfold to 32, deaths, but has slowly begun to decline during the past two years. For more on terrorism, see note to page For the poll about fear of terrorism, see Gallup[4]. Fishing vessels are becoming larger and can go out further into the deep seas to find the remaining stocks of fish. The study showed that the share of fish stocks within biologically sustainable levels decreased from 90 percent in , to In The Plundered Planet , Collier shows how the real price of a natural resource is calculated—the use by one generation of humans, based on the reproduction rate of the resource.

This is a way of determining how much fish each generation can consume. UNEP[1] reports more than recorded dead zones in polluted coastal areas around the world. This poll was initially conducted by YouGov. The results were so extraordinary that Gapminder decided to see if they could be replicated with a different polling company. This barchart mixes the results from the two online polls. YouGov polled 18, people in 17 countries. But we have decided to remove these two outliers because the proportion of people with access to the internet is not large enough to represent the whole population.


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This is not to discard the plausible and interesting hypothesis that Asians may be more positive than westerners. In this chapter we introduce the idea that you should never trust the data percent. The levels of extreme poverty historically can not be known exactly.

Adjusting for changes in prices, currencies, food, employment and technology is very difficult.

In Factfulness we use numbers from Gapminder[9]. The numbers before are based on two sources. To express this in PPP dollar prices is not trivial. The two alternative rates from Bourguignon and Morrisson, Max Roser at OurWorldInData[1] use the higher estimate when showing a single line for the global trend of extreme poverty rate ; Max Roser uses the higher estimate, while we have decided to go for a lower estimate. This is because the second source, van Zanden[1], indicates a lower rate.

The paper World Income Inequality uses historic GDP per capita from Maddison[1] to estimate what income levels people lived on. For the distribution of incomes within countries they use historic records of the differences in heights of people such as military data archives. Insufficient food during childhood stops growth and leads to a shorter adult person. By estimating the childhood stunting they can guess the share of people missing food, hence living in extreme poverty. We then pull this number back 20 years and assume even more people were poor in We land on 85 percent on Level 1 at the start of the trend in After the data comes from PovcalNet and is described in the note to Fact Question 3.

The official World Bank estimate of extreme poverty in year is Swedes and almost everyone else lived to 32 years or less; see Gapminder[4]. British children began to work at an early age, on average at 10, which varied between regions. Young children were extremely valuable in British coal mines because they were small. Until , many children, some as young as five years old, died while working their 10 hour shifts as trappers. For more on child labor in industrial England, see this article by Griffin The numbers in the text on the reductions in extreme poverty in China, India, Latin America and elsewhere come from World Bank[5] extended to by Gapminder[9] , assuming IMF forecasts are accurate.

In , only the Central African Republic and Lesotho had a life expectancy as low as 50 years. But uncertainties are huge, especially on Level 1 and 2. Learn how much data doubt you should have at www. This number is an average of two sources. FRD, page 87 says: The famine in India between and began with a drought in This led to food shortage and disease during several years, causing up to 5 million deaths according to the sources listed in the Wikipedia article about the Great Famine. As a result, the Indian life expectancy dropped to roughly 19 years, according to economic historian Mattias Lindgren, see Gapminder[4].

Crosby estimates that the Spanish flu caused 50 million deaths. The world population in was 1. The WFP started its life saving mission in September when an earthquake killed 12, people in Iran, leaving thousands without homes and food.

This is further explained on page 73 and note. The citizens of Lesotho are usually referred to as the Basotho. Many Basotho also live outside Lesotho, but here we refer to those actually living in Lesotho. The uncertainties are huge for all health estimates on Level 1. That is only expressing the uncertainty within the model. When IHME change their model and improve their estimation calculations, the country estimates may change outside these uncertainty intervals.

Between the previous two revisions, estimates for 24 percent of all countries changed beyond the confidence interval. In the Global Burden of Disease revision, the lower estimate for was adjusted downwards by 5. This was mainly due to an improved modelling of the HIV pandemic. This is just one example of the actual size of uncertainty of health estimates on Level 1 and 2.

The figures do not imply an ability to understand advanced written messages. The literacy rate for India is from India Census The most recent census data on literacy in India puts the overall literacy rate at 74 percent of the population aged 7 and above. While literacy differed between states—for example, 64 percent in Bihar and 94 percent in Kerala—the numbers show a 10 percent increase since the last census that was published 10 years earlier. Assuming that the literacy rate continues to increase, it is probable that the majority of India has a literacy rate of at least 80 percent in Not until , with the Swedish school reform making it obligatory for children to attend school, literacy numbers climbed further.

By , the literacy rate was at about 87 percent. In Afghanistan in , more than 60 percent of the 1-year olds have received most of the vaccines as listed by WHO[1]: Only MCV2 the second shot against measles which brings immunity from 95 to Below are the 32 improvement graphs that are printed in the book Factfulness , on pages 60 to 63 in the English edition, with detailed documentation on how the many sources were used.

To count the number of countries where forced labor is legal, we have used different indicators. If state owned companies or the state itself is accused of practicing forced labor and ILO is refused the possibilities to investigate it, the country is considered as practising legal slavery, regardless of its official legislation. It is a big difference between abolishing slavery in the law and doing so in practice.

As with all laws, the enactment relies on law enforcement—that is, police intervention. Our counts of legal shifts in countries in different years should not be interpreted as expressing the extent to which slavery is practiced. Many countries are still not taking sufficient action to end the remaining slavery, as is the case in North Korea , Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. The dates collected of slavery abolishments concern passed laws, constitutions or signatures of UN conventions for all states recognised by the UN , based on three UN treaties:.

The dates when countries passed domestic laws and constitutions, explicitly banning slavery or forced labor, come from the Slavery in Domestic Legislation database, compiled by Jean Allain and Dr. Most historic dates of abolishment before are based on Wikipedia[1], see www. In all governments have a legal document banning forced labor, but some of them seem to be practicing forced labor themselves. An organisation called www. There are, in addition, plenty of reports of forced labour in North Korean work camps. Therefore we decided to mark these countries as not having made slavery illegal yet, even if all of these countries have signed UN conventions and banned it by their constitution.

After gathering the earliest date of abolishment for all countries, we could count the number of countries that are yet to abolish slavery and forced labor for the years — The UN treaty collection is available at the UN treaties website. For detailed documentation and data behind this graph, visit www. Not only has the amount of oil spilled been falling. The number of accidents dropped from an average of Estimates before come from hundreds of historical sources, primarily www.

They have been compiled into one coherent trend line. Our county estimates are based on these sources, and our global trend for child mortality rate is using the UN-IGME data for the period to All other years is a weighted mean of countries data. The proper way to calculate the global child mortality, would require estimating the total number of child births and child deaths each year.

The reason to abolish death penalty is not only the terrible risk of wrongful execution. Death penalty breaches two essential human rights: Both rights are protected under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations in , and should be respected by all members states. Amnesty International keeps track of countries that have abolished the death penalty after ; see www.

To qualify as a country, it requires that the use of death penalty is prohibited as punishment for all crimes. Abolishment prior to in this trend comes from Wikipedia[2], see www. Tetraethyl lead began to be added in gasoline for increased vehicle performance and fuel economy in the s, see www. That was a stupid idea, since lead is a toxicant that affects multiple body systems and is particularly harmful to young children: The first country to ban lead in gasoline was Japan in Since then countries have followed.

The actual degree of child labor is uncertain, but the trend of decline is evident in all sources measured consistently over time. Data from ILO[8] covers the years — It overlaps in time with ILO[7] but reports data for a wider age-interval spanning the years 5—17 years. The age interval reported here is 10—14 years. While the global decline of child labor is certain, the actual levels at all times are not. Since writing this book, new numbers supporting our general estimates have been published on OurWorldInData[3].

Annual deaths from natural disasters have decreased by 75 percent over the past years, according to the International Disaster Database; see EM-DAT. Since disasters vary from year to year, here we compare ten-year averages. In chapter four where we further discuss the decline, we also use year averages. The huge decline in disaster deaths would be even more striking if two other major global changes are taken into account. In — there were disaster deaths per million people.

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In — the number was Second, years ago the communication technologies for reporting disasters and their victims were very primitive, compared to the monitoring of today. Many catastrophes must have gone unrecorded ur been underreported. The EM-DAT data include death toll estimates for disasters recorded worldwide since , including all known emergency events categorized as: The number of warheads peaked in the mid s and has steadily decreased since.

The Nuclear Notebook gives a detailed breakdown: Roughly, 9, of these weapons are in military arsenals; the remaining weapons are retired and awaiting dismantlement.

Approximately 4, are operationally available, and some 1, are on high alert and ready for use on short notice. By far, the largest concentrations of nuclear weapons reside in Russia and the United States, which possess 93 percent of the total global inventory. Smallpox had been one of the major killers of humans. Vaccines were invented already in , but not until was the nasty viruses defeated thanks to massive global vaccination campaigns lead by the World Health Organization.

The last known case was recorded in Somalia in Smallpox was the first and so far the only disease eradicated by global vaccination programs. The data was published in the paper Towards the endgame and beyond: The UVB light is also harmful to plants and animals. When scientists presented evidence of the gases causing the ozone hole, the world reacted fast.

All countries agreed to stop using these gases, and ratified the Montreal Protocol in The unit ODP tonnes is not an actual weight measurement, but represent the destructive effects of a substance compared to a reference substance.

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The Internet Movie Database IMBd is maintained by film enthusiasts across the world, and has a nearly complete coverage of all feature films, making 3. The trend after is based on the figure on page 30 in UNEP[6]. Between and the trend comes from Abouchakra et al , which is based on UNEP[5] data from february For categories of the IUCN protected areas, see www. For more about the data behind this graph, visit www. In New Zealand took the step, and then all other countries followed—Australia in , Azerbaijan in , Sweden in but women voted for the first time in and Syria in , to mention a few—except one.

Saudi Arabia started letting women vote in and since women are also allowed to drive cars. As of , The Vatican State is the only country left where voting requires male gender.

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Since then, music recording have increased both in terms of quality and quantity. The curve shows the number of songs on Spotify, based on the recording date as stated by the ISRC International Standard Recording Code which is a global identifier for sound recordings that let music artists track and charge based on how often their recordings are played in different channels. Of course, not all music recordings are available through Spotify, but the shape of the curve shows the mind blowing increase in cultural expression and consumption. The final data-point in this curve, 2.

The first peer-reviewed scientific journal was Philosophical Transactions published by the Royal Society in London. The first issue was published in March and during its first year in existence scientific articles were printed only counting articles that are more like modern day scientific articles, excluding book reviews and extracts from letters.

Today, each acre of cropland produces on average 3. Roser has adopted the definitions of the Polity IV dataset but give the numbers in terms of inhabitants, not number of countries. The Polity IV dataset puts countries on a democracy scale, and defines non-democratic regimes as autocracies e. China , closed anocracy e. Morocco , open anocracy e. Russia or colonial regimes. In this graph, we only show democracies, hence disregarding all types of non-democratic regimes. Literacy is hard to define and measure. UNESCO[2] collected data from national surveys and censuses, all using slightly different definitions and methods for measuring literacy.

The numbers between and are from van Zanden[3] , who gathered the data from multiple sources, described in the chapter Education since by Bas van Leeuwen and Jieli van Leeuwen-Li see p. The exact levels are even more uncertain than after We removed dips and peaks in the trend line from van Zanden[3] as they might give an impression of non-existing accuracy. Visit Literacy rate—v1 for detailed documentation of the data sources behind this graph.

This is not a global average for survival of all children with cancer. The data is for children treated in the US, which is representative for the cancer treatment given to children on Level 4, in Europe, Japan and elsewhere. The estimate is from NCI[2], see www. This trend is based on UNESCO[3] , and shows the number of girls of official primary school age who are enrolled in primary or secondary school, expressed as a percentage of the population of official primary school age girls.

The age interval for primary education varies between countries, but it is often between 6 to 11 years of age. Girls of primary school age who are still in pre-primary education are excluded and considered out of school. We have inverted the numbers to show children not out-of-school: See also the note to Fact question 1: Despite the fact that the status of many of these species is not improving, we consider it a great improvement that they are at least monitored.

Data after come from Red List[4]. The estimates for the following years are handpicked from the following publications and pages: It compiled data about 34 mammal species and was managed by The Species Survival Commission under Leofric Boyle, according to the about page at Red List. See also the note to Fact question For the GTF measures of electricity access, see http: Statistics showing the global increase of mobile penetration often uses data from ITU from the International Telecommunication Union , ITU[1], counting the number of subscriptions, not subscribers. In the world in there were 7.

GSMA publishes estimates of the number of unique subscribers, and their data series start with the numbers. Gapminder has extended the series, combining these two measures by calculating the rate of subscriptions per subscriber for the overlapping year , and then assume that the same rate is applicable from the beginning of the ITU[1] subscription series in when ITU reports 23, subscriptions worldwide.

These are combined in Gapminder[22]. The first data point, zero internet users in , is based on the Internet System Consortium ISC , which count internet hosts historically. The first record is from August with hosting servers, why we assume that the year before, the number of users was practically zero.

Data from WHO[1] gives the immunization coverage of all different common vaccines. Gapminder[23] has combined these to one single indicator: This indicates at least some basic form of access to modern health service and scientific medicine. Read more in the note to Fact question 9: This documentation will be added in the next version of this document. For more information about this chart, see www. The main causes of deaths have been the same throughout human history: The common lethal bacterias probably killed people at a constant rate until modern sanitation was invented.

Most children died from diarrhea, pneumonia, measles, malaria, or some bacterial infection. The general risk of interpersonal violence and accidents were constantly higher, but the other main killers—violence, pandemics and starvation—killed at rates that varied enormously between years and places. During most years, there was probably enough food, it was peace and people were somewhat healthy. Paleodemography is an academic research field that attempts to reconstruct the mortality, fertility and age compositions of prehistoric populations based on skeletal samples from archeological sites.

The percentage of infants varies enormously between sites, and occasionally, among hundreds of adults in certain sites, not a single child skeletal is found. Some studies have tried to find out why infants are underrepresented in archeological findings. In a study from Manifold , researchers examined child and adolescent skeletons to assess if local soil properties could make them more easily decomposed.

All groups of hunter-gatherers and hunter-horticulturalists have not been equally brutal. But that is uncommon. Instead, violence among hunter-gatherers were probably at least 10 times more common. For 39 hunter-gatherers populations where archaeologists and anthropologists have assessed the causes of death, they have found flint arrowheads in chests and holes in skulls. Skeletons found in excavations of prehistoric massacres show that children were treated just as brutally as adults.

Infanticide is found in many human groups with food scarcity across the world; see Pinker[4]. The hunter-gatherer groups studied by Gurven and Kaplan showed that deaths under age were on average caused by violence. In violent communities, children are not spared. Members of hunter-gatherer groups generally experienced lots of violence, as described in Gurven and Kaplan , Diamond , Pinker , and OurWorldInData[5]. This terrifying way of losing a child is just as painful as other ways, as consistently documented in traditional societies by anthropologists interviewing parents who had to kill a newborn—Pinker , p.

The data on drownings today comes from IHME[4,5]: Up until , more than 20 percent of the victims of drownings were children below the age of ten. The Swedish Life Saving Society started lobbying for obligatory swimming practice in all schools, which together with other preventive actions reduced the number; see Sundin et al.

Use the animated version of the World Health Chart to see how almost all countries are now catching up with Sweden—or select another country to compare—at www. The material Gapminder produced to try to communicate the urgency of the situation is at ww. The Indian legend, depicting the effect of doubling, is called the Legend of the Ambalappuzha Paal Payasam , named after the temple where it supposedly happened. Roughly a billion people will be added over the next 13 years, based on the revision of World Population Prospects from the population indicator medium fertility variant; see UN Population Data below, UN-Pop[1].

The data is freely available online. The graph to Fact Question 5 shows three forecasts. The dashed line at the bottom of the graph, alternative C, shows the official UN forecast. The trend up to is the UN numbers for the global child population, ages 0— Two billion children is a rounded number.

The precise UN numbers are 1. See also the note to Fact Question 5. The polling devices used to test the audience were from TurningPoint. In , when Hans asked the question to the teachers, the forecast had been published two months earlier. In fact, the official forecasts have stayed the same in the past four revisions of the publication, , , , and Official projections from UN have been freely available to the public for the past 8 years, showing that the number of children in the world has stopped increasing.

How Reliable is the World Population Forecast? Like forecasting the weather, it is almost impossible to perfectly predict the future population. But the demography experts at the UN Population Division have been very accurate in their forecasts for many decades, even before modern computer modeling was possible. Their forecasts of the future number of children have stayed the same in the past four revisions of the publication. The official UN projection is alternative C. The Accuracy of Past Projections is a study from Bongaarts and Bulato that measure past projections, and find that the average error of UN world population forecasts are modest, at 2.

Also Keilman studied the quality of UN population projections, and analyzed forecasts prepared by the UN between to The projections are available at the UN website , as well as the uncertainty intervals of their medium forecasts. To compare the population in prehistory with the current population of three major cities, we use data from the UN Statistics Division published in the Demographic Yearbook— The population was 6.

Pages 3-5: The 13 Fact Questions

The sources listed under the chart are only the main sources. The next billion were added to the world population in years after For estimates beginning in year zero, see Table 1, page 5, available to download as PDF. Caldwell and Schindlmayr provides population estimates before in Historical Population Estimates: Unraveling the Consensus published in the Population and Development Review pp.

Fertility rates decline during times of hardship. The dips and humps before shown on the graph were caused by the Second World War and famines. Fertility climbs to rates higher than usual when the crisis is over. Globally, the average fertility rate was at 5. As of , the estimated fertility rate was 2. Replacement rate with the current mortality worldwide is 2.

Detailed Notes

It is aligned with UN-Pop[3] estimates for post; see Gapminder[7]. The dashed line after shows the UN-Pop[1] medium fertility projection, which is expected to reach 1. The most accurate number is probably estimated at 40 million people who died during the Chinese famine; see necrometrics for a documentation of sources. The age structure of the Chinese population still bear marks of fewer number of children born during the famine.

The change from large to small families in a society is called fertility transitions, and refers to long-term decline of fertility in a population. Reduced child mortality in isolation does not automatically reduce fertility, it is more of a prerequisite for lowered fertility; basic education, a move out of extreme poverty, changing values towards rights for women and access to contraceptives are the other important determinants. In fact, these major aspects of modernization must all come together for each of them to happen. The contributing factors to lowered fertility in a population has a technical term: And as the UN expert pointed out, decreasing rates in child mortality is only one of those.

Oppenheim Mason argues that it is due to the following wrong assumptions:. Listed first, the major problem of fertility theories is to think that all fertility transitions share one and the same cause—when in reality, a combination of conditions motivates people to prevent most births.

To understand fertility decline, a number of causes must be considered. According to Oppenheim Mason, the main determinants make up:. While the above determinants are necessary to make fertility rates drop, they are not sufficient on their own, Oppenheim Mason says. Changing fertility means changes in family norms, gender roles, sexual behaviour, as well as in education and economy.

But the strength of cultural differences is easily overstated, and gender roles change quite fast across all cultures as people get richer, and their way of living is modernized. In cultures with extended families, including three generations, norms may survive a bit longer and the outdated expectations on women may take longer to transform. Multiple factors behind falling fertility rates are also taken into account by John Bryant, who argues that transition happens as:. Bryant notes that countries slow in initiating fertility drop still manage to catch up fast, and the societal improvements needed for transition become less over time.

But there are two caveats of examples that break the pattern of the fertility slide.

This counterintuitive phenomena is what population experts usually refer to as the demographic momentum, a term used to describe the delayed stopping of population increase. The fill-up effect is almost identical to the demographic momentum, but Gapminder has simplified the process by only comparing the size of cohorts. Future changes in population can be attributed to three factors: To find out how a population will change, demographers make up a set of variations.

By keeping fertility at replacement-level or letting mortality be constant, they can analyze the effects of different fertility and mortality scenarios. In that way, demographers can compare the outcome with their main scenario, and then attribute the difference to the factor they kept constant. If you find it hard to understand the fill-up in the text and graphs in this book, we find it easier to explain with animations or with our own hands—see www. For more technical descriptions, see from UN-Pop[6, 7]. Gapminder presents the old balance as a family with 6 children, out of which 4 die.

This iconic family represents a theoretical average, measured over the millennia with wide ranges in mortality and fertility. In the long time-frame, however, the average family probably had no more than two surviving children, since population growth on average stayed stable until Nobody knows the average fertility rate before In theory, the maximum number of children per woman would be between 10 and 15 children if all fertile women in a healthy population had sex often and continuously with no attempts to limit fertility.

In reality, it is almost always lower than that, and six children per woman is a likely average. Age specific mortality rates of the first millennials of human history are equally uncertain, but we can assume that over these huge time-horizons, mortality rate was high enough to keep population sizes down; see Livi-Bacci Sudden catastrophes, caused by famines, wars or pandemics, killed many and became much more common with agriculture and crowded settlements, or through contact with other populations that brought germs with them.

Gurven and Kaplan writes that:. However, those differences are small in a comparative cross-species perspective, and the similarity in mortality profiles of traditional peoples living in varying environments is impressive. The main sources behind our assumptions about fertility and mortality in pre families are Livi-Bacci , Paine and Boldsen , and Gurven and Kaplan The population curve is flat when the fill-up is completed and childbearing is on the level of replacement.

The technical term called replacement-level fertility is a measure of children per woman total fertility rate that is needed for the next generation of a population to replace itself. If four out of six people die before reaching childbearing age, replacement fertility would be 6 children per woman. The graph presenting family size by income uses the most recent available data from World Bank[5] estimating that Instead of using national averages, household data allow us to include families on Level 1, as well as the poorest families living in countries on Level 2 and 3.

The income levels of households in these datasets are estimated from their material assets, for instance by the number of people per sleeping room, floor-material and means of transport. Life expectancy suffered an extreme dip in Bangladesh because of the Bangladesh war of independence. In , the total fertility rate was 6. In Bangladesh today, the total fertility rate is 2. Since , the under-five mortality rate per 1, live births U5mr has reduced significantly. It fell from In other words, the child survival rate in was surviving children per 1, which means Today, the number is out of 1, which means that The child mortality rate was children per 1, live births in Egypt The construction of the High Aswan Dam began in to control flooding along the Nile.

The dam was completed in and installed ; see gapm. In our animated World Health Chart you can see the progress of Egypt, Bangladesh, or most other countries—search by country and click Play at www. See the talk at TEDxChange where Hans describes how reducing child mortality is both a moral and environmental imperative, here: These 14 graphs of differently shaped lines are all derived from plotting two indicators against each other and then drawing a line in the middle—just like the World Health Chart you see in the beginning of the book.

We removed the background bubbles in the small images, because it got too cluttered. Most of these charts use national averages, aggregated by the national income level; see Gapminder[3]. A few the straight line on recreational spending, the S-bend on vaccinations and fridges, and the slide on fertility use household data. Our estimates of typical families on different income levels are not based on country averages, because that would severely underestimate the number of the poorest and mask the wide range of differences for countries on levels 1—3.

Very few countries follow these lines exactly, but the lines show the general pattern of all countries over several decades. In each example, there are huge differences between countries on every level. You can explore the actual plotted bubbles behind these lines here: The generation time of E. The more than 50 pages of picture keys lead to the appropriate chapter and specific photos to confirm identification.

The keys are surprisingly comprehensive and easy for non-specialists to use. Many insects are difficult even for the experts to identify, but here readers will find a wealth of information on the amazing observable behaviors of insects and their fascinating life histories. Naturalists Kenn Kaufman and Eric R. Eaton use a broad ecological approach rather than overly technical terms, making the book accessible and easy to use. Their lively and engaging text emphasizes the insects that are most likely to draw attention and also includes helpful details on a wide array of lesser-known but recognizable groups.

The guide is lavishly illustrated, with more than 2, digitally enhanced photographs representing every major group of insects found in North America north of Mexico. A spider lassoes its prey. A beetle persuades a bee to care for its young. Small by virtue of their lack of backbones, this group of living things plays a surprisingly large role in the evolutionary cycle. These diverse creatures more than one million species are believed to exist roamed the earth before us and will still be here when we have gone. They are the pollinators, cleaners, and recyclers of life on earth. Without them, we would not last long.

Attenborough has studied and enjoyed these diminutive beings since he was a schoolboy in the Leicestershire countryside of England. Life in the Undergrowth, part of his innovative series on natural history topics, looks at invertebrates the world over: Adults are prejudiced against insects—handicapped by their ignorance and fears and limited by their size and vision.


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    All this information and much more is presented in a clear, highly illustrated format that Gem readers have come to know and love. The story of a lifetime of such minute explorations, For Love of Insects celebrates the small creatures that have emerged triumphant on the planet, the beneficiaries of extraordinary evolutionary inventiveness and unparalleled reproductive capacity. To understand the success of insects is to appreciate our own shortcomings, Eisner tells us, but never has a reckoning been such a pleasure.

    Recounting exploits and discoveries in his lab at Cornell and in the field in Uruguay, Australia, Panama, Europe, and North America, Eisner time and again demonstrates how inquiry into the survival strategies of an insect leads to clarifications beyond the expected; insects are revealed as masters of achievement, forms of life worthy of study and respect from even the most recalcitrant entomophobe.

    Spiders, bugs, moths, butterflies, beetles, bees, flies, dragonflies, grasshoppers, and many other insects are detailed in more than full-color photographs visually arranged by shape and color. Descriptive text includes measurements, diagnostic details, and information on habitat, range, feeding habits, sounds or songs, flight period, web construction, life cycle, behaviors, folklore, and environmental impact. An illustrated key to the insect orders and detailed drawings of the parts of insects, spiders, and butterflies supplement this extensive coverage.

    When his interest turned to the anatomical, there were even some ill-fated experiments with taxidermy. Once commonly found in the marshes of Kent, the English short-haired bumblebee went extinct in the United Kingdom, but by a twist of fate still exists in the wilds of New Zealand, the descendants of a few pairs shipped over in the nineteenth century. He details the minutiae of life in the nest, sharing fascinating research into the effects intensive farming has had on our bee population and the potential dangers if we are to continue down this path.

    S-T , History , Last Name: A-B , Last Name: Titles Appear On 1 List Each. Jeffrey C Miller et al. A Book of Bees: And How to Keep Them. A Checklist to the Odonata of Great…. A Compendium of Seashells: A Comprehensive Guide to Insects of…. A Field Guide to Butterflies of Texas. A Field Guide to Insects.

    A Field Guide to the Dragonflies of Hainan. China Scientific Book Service. A Guide to Common Freshwater Invertebrates. A Guide to Mosquitoes of Australia. A Guide to Spiders of Australia. A Guide to the Cockroaches of Australia. A Guide to the Dragonflies of Great…. A Guide to the Katydids of Australia. A Hive For The Honeybee. A Natural History of Shells. A textbook of entomology. A World Without Bees.

    Alison Benjamin, Brian McCallum. All About Butterflies of Australia. An Inordinate Fondness for Beetles. Attracting Butterflies to Your Garden. Bees, Wasps and Ants of Kent. Bees, Wasps and Ants: Beetles of Eastern North America. Beetles of Stored Products. A Falcon Pocket Guide. Book of the Spider. A Field Guide to….

    David Newland et al. Stuart Ball, Roger Morris. British Moths; A Photographic Guide to…. An Introduction to the World…. Whitney Cranshaw, Richard Redak. Bumble Bees of North America: Paul Williams et al. Bumblebees New Naturalist, Their Behaviour and Ecology. Butterflies of Britain and Europe: Tari Haahtela et al. Butterflies of Britain and Ireland. Butterflies of Kuniujiang Kuniujiang Hudie. Butterflies of North America Unknown Binding. San Diego Natural History Museum.

    Candy Coris, Spiderling Chronicles. Camilla De la Bedoyere. Caterpillars in the Field and Garden: Brock and Jeffrey Glassberg. Cockroaches of Southeastern China. Cockroaches of Stay More. Conifer Moths of the British Isles: Jon Clifton, Jim Wheeler. Conservation research for the Rare Butterflies in China. A Pessimist In Paradise.

    Destructive and useful insects. Dragonflies of the World. Drawing and Painting Insects. The Promise of Pharmaceutical Entomology. Edible Insects of China. Empire of the Ants La Saga des Fourmis, 1. Encyclopedia of Entomology Hardcover. Evolution of the Insects Hardcover. Falcon Nature Guides to National Parks. Ann Simpson and Rob Simpson. Familiar Insects and Spiders North America. Fascinating Insects of South East Asia. Fauna of Tianmu Mountain Vol. Fauna Sinica Insecta Vol. Fireflies, Glow-Worms, and Lightning Bugs. Flying Floris, Spiderling Chronicles. Garden Pests of Britain and Europe.

    Garden Pests, Diseases and Good Bugs. General and applied entomology. Golden Nature Guides Series. Guide to invertebrate animals. Biography of a Survivor. How to Know the Insects Spiral-bound. Important Medicinal Insects of China. Insect biology — A textbook of Entomology. Insect Geography of China. A field entomological manual for the amateur naturalist. Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Biology. Insect Natural History New Naturalist, 8. Insect Research of Central China Volume Hugh Raffles, Tim Edgar.

    In Pursuit of a Garden Ecology Hardcover. Insects of South-Eastern Australia. Insects of the Falkland Islands. Insects of the Los Angeles Basin. Insects of the world. Insects of Wangjiayuan insect species with color pictures from a village of Beijing. Introduction to California Beetles. This fabulous boxset contains 10 science-themed books from the Usborne Beginners range, presented in a slipcase.

    These colourful information books are for children beginning to read on their own. Full of vivid, full colour illustrations and photographs on every page, accompanied by short, informative text. Earthquakes and Tsunamis 3. Living in Space 4. Storms and Hurricanes 7. Sun Moon and Stars 8.

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