Go over with the class the other important elements of a short story besides its theme: The plot is the sequence of events that occur in the story. The plot begins with a narrative hook; must involve a problem, or conflict, that the main character faces; builds to a climax, or point of highest interest; and then shows the main character solving the problem and learning something about life. The characters are the individuals in the story.
A short story may have one or a few main characters and one or a few minor characters. The setting refers to the time and place in which the story occurs. Often, a short story as opposed to a novel has only one or a few settings. The point of view is the angle from which the story is told—first person by the narrator or third person by someone outside the story. In a minilesson, teach or review with students the prewriting phase.
Having already chosen a theme, the class must now agree on a plot that will showcase showcase the selected theme. In asking students to come up with a plot, remind them that people usually write best when they write about what they know—the world they live in every day. Let them brainstorm ideas and then settle on one plot idea for their group story. Next, ask students to brainstorm and come up with at least two main characters to inhabit the plot—one character who confronts the problem, and another character who helps get around the problem.
When they come up with possible characters, ask them to fill in a chart with information on each character's age, size, outstanding features, clothing, personality, and characteristics of speech and behavior. Third, ask students to imagine when and where the characters exist, jotting down, on another chart, details about time of year, historical period, locale, and weather. Next, ask students to concur on whether to use "I" or a third-person pronoun in their story. Generate an outline that students can refer to when they're ready to draft their communal story.
Here's one such outline: Explain now how the next stage of the process—writing, based on the prewriting notes—will progress: You will select one pair of students to write, jointly, the first paragraph or several paragraphs. You will then select a second pair of students, who will add one or several paragraphs to move the story along.
You will then select a third pair—and so on. Instead of writing one or several paragraphs of the narration per se, a pair may contribute the contents of a diary or letter that is important to the plot. With one exception, all the students in the class will take turns writing until the story is through. The exception is the pair of students you will designate as editors; their contribution will come later in the writing process.
Although the students will be following the prewriting notes about story basics, each pair will have a chance to build on or change the direction of the story with new input. To keep the entire class involved in how the story is progressing, make sure that you or a student reads the ongoing draft aloud to the class periodically. After every pair of students except the editors has had a chance to contribute to the story, and all writers are satisfied with the story, give them a chance to come up with a title for the story.
Allow the writers some time away from the manuscript. Then with the entire class, run through the key points to remember about revising and editing. You might share with students a checklist such as the following: CONTENT Does the text clearly present a character facing the problem, lead up to a solution, and always indicate reactions by characters in the story? The editors may make changes on the photocopy itself, or they may suggest in notes how they think the writers themselves should revise the story.
Regardless of who does the revision, chances are that at the end of the revising and editing process you want a clean draft of the story to distribute to the class for their journals. Give students a chance to discuss the pros and cons of developing a story by committee, given that the plan of one author may be overridden by a later author. Back to Top Adaptations Encourage students to participate in this activity by giving them permission to write as little as a single sentence when their turn comes.
Back to Top Discussion Questions 1. Analyze Pip's reaction to the criminal in the cemetery. Discuss what you would do if you were in Pip's situation.
Teaching Ideas for Great Expectations by Charles Dickens
Would you report the criminal to the proper authorities or would you do the same thing Pip did? Discuss the role Miss Havisham plays in the novel. Some have said she represents an imprisoned state of mind. What does this mean, and do you agree that this is an apt description of Miss Havisham? They are distant and Pip is embarrassed by Joe even though he realizes all that he has done for him. Analyze a time in your own life when you were embarrassed by a family member. How did it make you feel before, during, and after the incident?
Do you think Pip was justified in feeling this way? Many people in your life have expectations of you.
Compare the expectations that you have of yourself to others around you. What do your friends, boyfriend, girlfriend, parents, and teachers expect from you? How are these expectations similar to or different from the ones you have of yourself? Back to Top Evaluation Writing and editing a collaborative story do not lend themselves to evaluation of students on an individual basis.
Use this lesson, instead, to help students develop by consensus their own criteria for evaluating the final short story. On a scale of with 3 being highest, what qualities must a story have to merit a 3? Back to Top Extensions Director's Cut Dickens changed the ending of Great Expectations prior to publishing it in the form your class has read. In addition, one movie version uses another ending. Ask students, working in small groups, to come up with yet another ending for the novel.
Ask students to use the video and other resources to write an essay about the class structure that existed in England in the s. Advise them to support their generalizations with examples. Back to Top Suggested Readings Bleak House Charles Dickens, London, Mandarin, The obscure case of Jarndyce and Jarndyce, in which an inheritance is gradually devoured by legal costs, the romance of Esther Summerson and the secrets of her origin, the sleuthing of detective Inspector Bucket, and the fate of Jo the crossing-sweeper—these are some of the lives Dickens invokes to portray London society, rich and poor, as no other novelist has done.
David Copperfield Charles Dickens, Oxford, Clarendon Press; New York, Oxford Press, Written in the form of an autobiography, it tells the story of David Copperfield, growing to maturity in the affairs of the world and the affairs of the heart—his success as an artist arising out of his sufferings and the lessons he derives from life.
Teaching Ideas for Great Expectations by Charles Dickens
The Dickens Page This is an outstanding tribute to Dickens. It contains links, organizations, images of Dickens. There are several sections that can supplement the study of Dickens and his works. This site promotes the study and enjoyment of the life, times, and works of Charles Dickens. Dickens House Museum This is a wonderful interactive site that takes the learner on a tour of Dickens' home.
- Learning Objectives?
- Silent Service.
- Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Postcommunist World.
Back to Top Vocabulary Click on any of the vocabulary words below to hear them pronounced and used in a sentence. Extending beyond the usual or ordinary especially in size or scope. The journey of Philip Pirrip from the shadows of society up to its dizzying heights is an epic one. A governing body or upper class usually made up of an hereditary nobility.
Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text. This lesson is designed to meet the needs of students who have finished reading the book Great Expectations by Charles Dickens.
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Explore over 4, video courses. Find a degree that fits your goals. Try it risk-free for 30 days. Add to Add to Add to. Want to watch this again later? Help students summarize the novel 'Great Expectations' using this post-reading lesson plan. Students will write about the characters, theme, and plot of the book, then set up a learning walk to apply concepts. Learning Objectives After this lesson, students will be able to: Try it risk-free No obligation, cancel anytime.
Want to learn more? Select a subject to preview related courses: Engage students and prepare them for learning by asking them to re-title the book, explaining their new choice. Have students share ideas with partners and listen in to their conversations; share as a group briefly.
Tell students they will be watching a video to review key ideas found in the novel Great Expectations. Distribute copies of the text from the lesson, then start the video Dickens' Great Expectations: Plot, Characters, and Social Class. Instruct students to highlight key ideas on their papers as the video plays. What does it mean that the novel was published serially? Why did this happen? When you read the novel, could you tell it had originally been published serially? Resume the lesson and pause again at 3: Have students create a list of characters, then add character traits and text evidence to support their analysis.
Demonstrate with Pip if necessary. Have students create two sections in their notebooks labeled 'Moral Development' and 'Social Class. How does Pip's ambition propel him through life? How is the theme of moral development central to the plot? How does Pip's strong conscience demonstrate his character? Why did Dickens choose to address social class? How is the novel a time of transition of the social class? Re-start the lesson and pause at Position students in small groups of students and have them popcorn retell the story.
One student starts, then pauses mid-sentence to allow the next to pick up, and so on. Listen in as students retell to make sure they understand key ideas. When all groups are finished, restart the lesson. Compare and contrast the two endings, discussing why Dickens changed and revised.
Ask students which they prefer and discuss the reasons for their choices. Play the Lesson Summary and have students complete their notes. Activity Students will now create a gallery walk for the novel Great Expectations.