Conduction is one of the main potential heat transfer mechanisms by which the internal heating or cooling can be lost to the outside, resulting in high operating costs , high carbon emissions and occupant discomfort. For building materials it is sometimes thought that conductivity is expressed by the U-Value , however, U-values are the reciprocal of the sum of the thermal resistances of a body plus its inside and outside surface thermal resistances.
Conductivity is more accurately expressed by a material 's R-Value , which is the reciprocal of its thermal resistance and does not include a surface component. See U-Value for more information. Conduction can be inhibited by insulating materials which have a high thermal resistance and so help reduce heat transfer between the inside and outside.
See insulation for more information.
- Heat and Mass Transfer in Building Services Design.
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An insulating effect can also be achieved by the thermal mass of building components. Thermal mass describes the ability of a material to absorb, store and release heat energy. Thermal mass can be used to even out variations in internal and external conditions, absorbing heat as temperatures rise and releasing it as they fall. In building design , this can useful for evening-out and delaying extremes in thermal conditions, stabilising the internal environment and so reducing the demand for building services systems. Convection is the movement of a fluid, such as the air, by advection and diffusion.
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This is a very important mechanism in the design of buildings , where air movement is necessary to:. Convection is also a heat transfer mechanism, resulting from the movement of air of different temperatures. Air movement in buildings can be 'forced' for example driven by fans , or 'natural' resulting from pressure differences from one part of a building to another. Natural air movement can be either wind driven, or buoyancy driven.
For more information see: Accurately predicting the movement of air within buildings is extremely complicated and can require the use of computational fluid dynamics CFD modelling software. See CFD for more information. See convection for more information.
Heat and Mass Transfer in Building Services Design - Keith Moss - Google Книги
Fluids can also be used to transfer heat within a building by ' mass transfer ', for example by the flow of a refrigerant , chilled water or hot water around a building to provide heating or cooling. They also absorb thermal radiation emitted by their surroundings. The difference in the total amount of radiation emitted and absorbed by a body at any given moment may result in a net heat transfer which will produce a change in the temperature of that body.
The range of terrestrial temperatures experienced within the built environment is relatively small, and relative to the temperature of the sun this range is 'cold' and so radiating at a 'long' wavelength compared to the sun. This anomaly allows us to categorise thermal radiation as short-wave solar radiation and terrestrial or long wave infra-red radiation.
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Heat and Mass Transfer in Building Services Design
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