However, for enduring mammalian attachment to occur loving environments and identification with others are as critical as chemistry to sculpt the brain. Monkeys raised in isolation go on eating binges and cower in corners. Instead of playful roughhousing, they fight with their peers unto death, and they never really get the hang of copulation. This was demonstrated in a series of ingenious experiments by University of Virginia psychologist, Jonathan Haidt and his students.
These effects were much less evident if the mothers were shown humorous or neutral videos. Again, when they showed college students documentaries of heroic altruists and uplifting video segments illustrating displays of gratitude and unselfish love, Haidt and colleagues evoked in the students a sense of calm, a warm feeling in the chest, and an impulse to help others, not in evidence after the same students viewed neutral video clips Haidt, Love, especially unconditional love, also cures people—both those who give it and those who receive it.
Love, like the other positive emotions, is religion without the side effects. Healing love, of course, always involves appropriate boundaries. Eye contact and touch, as in mother-child interaction, must always be kept separate from lust and selfish Eros, or the other person will feel violated. The good hospice nurse, the committed parish priest, the dedicated caseworker, even a best friend needs to remember that a favourite grandmother, not a charismatic lifeguard, is the proper model for the connectedness, the passion, the commitment and the wise limits that create therapeutic love.
During prolonged periods of fear, anxiety and depression, pain thresholds are lowered and cortisol levels and blood pressure can be chronically and deleteriously elevated. In contrast, during periods of sustained oxytocin release, cortisol levels and blood pressure are reduced, pain thresholds are increased and a calm nonanxious state results Uvnas Moberg, A recent study of the cortisol elevation and post-stress anxiety involved in public speaking found that intranasally administered oxytocin and social supports, each buffered the effects of stress, and they were most effective when given in combination Heinrichs et al.
No wonder love and compassion are valuable at the bedside of the sick. Let me illustrate this by suggesting that the unconscious heart sees more meaningfully than the conscious eye.
A Tribute to Eros | The Brooklyn Rail
The sympathetic nervous system is appealing to the Western mind. Fight, Compete, all blood to the muscles and away from the gut, glucose stores mobilised, Yay! But we are also talking about the roots of the metabolic syndrome hypertension, hypercortisolmia and secondary diabetes. Look at the parasympathetic nervous system. By soothing research subjects with videos of positive emotions you can do it at home just by cuddling , she could lower pulse rate, speed cardiac recovery and enhance memory, creativity and social tolerance.
Stimulate the sympathetic nervous system with Hobbesian negative emotion and you reverse the process. Love, hope, joy, forgiveness, compassion, faith, awe Keltner and Haidt, and gratitude McCullough et al. I have omitted from the list four other positive emotions—excitement, contentment, mirth and a sense of mastery, as we can feel these latter four emotions alone on a desert island. In sharp contrast, the eight positive emotions that I have selected all involve human connection.
Let me carry this hypothesis further. Dopaminergic brain tracts can be shown to underlie addictive behaviour in mammals and reptiles. But in mammals, these same dopaminergic tracts run from the mid-brain—the reptile brain—to the limbic system—the part of the mammalian brain that serves attachment.
Then, the transmission continues to the anterior cingulate gyrus-that part of the mammalian limbic cortex that makes the past emotionally meaningful. In the words of a sensitive observer, social psychologist, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Csikszentmihalyi, , p. Ritual form wins over substance and the seeker is back where he started. One thing becomes another; one never arrives. Like good science, mature faith can distinguish the forest from the trees. Let me close with a cheer for consciousness and language, but only when linked with the limbic positive emotions.
As a corollary of cortical brain expansion in human beings, came an increasingly focused consciousness. But human beings can reflect upon the distinction and can bring the question of feelings Am I hungry? Armchair critics can scoff at the follies of modern judicial punishments, but for the last 30 centuries through the conscious reflection upon the long-term consequences of angry retaliation, the deterrence of criminal behaviour has become progressively more rational and more loving.
We are still learning! We may moan about our urban murder rate, especially in the American and Brazilian cities with all their handguns. The evidence for convincing positive cultural evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens is far more convincing. In the place of robust strength, came the evolution of successful social organisation that depended upon capacity to plan for the future, shared awe through artistic creativity and an increasing concern for the sick and the lame.
Over the past 20, years, this inexorable march of spiritual development, artistic skill and culturally mandated unselfish care of the weak has continued to evolve. Evidence of organised religion accompanied evidence of stable settlements seven to twelve millennia ago. However, until the transformative millennium, a millennium extending from B.
Not until the Bhagavad-Gita, Buddhism and Christianity became established, not until organised religions that emphasised love and compassion rather than fear and dominance, did great cities endure. The early Benedictine monks followed the principle that the care of the sick is to be placed above and before every other duty. The Nazi order lasted barely a decade, but after years, the Benedictine Order is still alive and well. The brilliantly rational but spiritually challenged French Revolution lasted no longer than the Third Reich.
In short, I would conclude that positive emotions of the loving irrational limbic system are just as important to cultural survival as is the ingenious and rational neocortex. Human capacity for time present negative emotions like fear, disgust and attack has probably not evolved much beyond that of a cornered rat.
However, our capacity for the future-oriented positive emotions like joy, the Samaritan response, hope and forgiveness continues to evolve. Human beings, for better or for worse, remain a work in progress. Another clear example of the survival value of spirituality and positive emotions in the modern world was the decade of to in Cambodia. Sentimental attachment to a family member or to a temple was believed to impede rational rapid social progress and was punishable by death. Four years later when the Khmer Rouge regime fell, the Cambodian children, now orphans, remained passionately attached to what remained of their extended families; and Buddhism rapidly asserted itself as a high point of village life.
It was not from do-gooder central planning, it is how the human brain has evolved to work. The evolution of human beings has been much more moral and spiritual than the philosopher Hobbes and the geneticist Richard Dawkins give it credit for. The philosophical discovery of the positive emotions, of course, is years old. The Gita, the Pali Canon and the Old Testament spell out the importance of love, compassion, forgiveness and gratitude. But only in the last 20 years have the social and biological sciences assembled the necessary techniques to convince the cognitive mind of what the heart has always known Vaillant, The fifty-year prospective follow-up empirical evidence for this extraordinary generalisation is in press.
Vaillant has spent his research career charting adult development and the recovery process of schizophrenia, heroin addiction, alcoholism and personality disorder. The study has prospectively charted the lives of men and women for over 60 years. His summary of the lives of men and women from adolescence to age 80, called Aging Well, was published by Little, Brown in His latest book Spiritual Evolution: A Scientific Defense of Faith is in press.
Vaillant did his residency at the Massachusetts Mental Health Center and completed his psychoanalytic training at the Boston Psychoanalytic Institute.
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He has been an invited speaker and consultant for seminars and workshops throughout the world. A major focus of his work in the past has been on developing ways of studying defence mechanisms empirically. More recently, he has been interested in successful aging, positive emotions and spirituality.
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He is on the steering committee of Positive Psychology. He has twice received research prizes from the International Psychogeriatric Society. Most recently, he received the distinguished service award from the American Psychiatric Association. This is my original unpublished piece, not submitted for publication elsewhere. Brain, Mind and Consciousness: An International, Interdisciplinary Perspective A. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Mens Sana Monogr v. Find articles by George E. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
"Eros" in French
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The philosophy of mind is intimately connected with the philosophy of action. Evolutionary Basis For The Positive Emotions Put differently, neocortical science and limbic spirituality both mediate survival, but to do so they depend on different parts of our highly integrated brain. Social Bonding In short, human beings have survived by sophisticated social bonding—characterised by unconditional attachment, forgiveness, gratitude and affectionate eye contact.
How Do We Learn Love? Concluding Remarks [see also Figure 1 ]. Open in a separate window. Take home message Happiness is love. Questions That This Paper Raises Do we need to use brain imaging to clarify more fully the differences between attachment to drugs and attachment to people?
Can we use brain imaging to further delineate differences between positive emotions like joy, hope, trust and gratitude? Footnotes Conflict of interest: None declared Declaration This is my original unpublished piece, not submitted for publication elsewhere. M, Hakeem A, Erwin J. M, Nimchinsky E, Hof P. The anterior cingulate cortex: The evolution of an interface between emotion and cognition.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds. Harper and Row; Spirituality, religion and psychiatry: Its application to clinical practice.
Lewis M, Haviland-Jones J. The nature of love. Social support and oxytocin interact to suppress cortisol and subjective responses to psychosocial stress. The neurobiology of attachment. Keltner D, Haidt J. Approaching awe as moral aesthetic and spiritual emotions. Levitt S, Dubner S. Gratitude as moral affect. Oxford University Press; Saint Exupery Antoine de. Harcourt Brace and World; Infants response to social separation reflects adult differences in affinitive behavior, a comparative developmental study in prairie and mountain voles.
"Eros" in English
All compone nt s , accessories a n d other parts must be firmly [ Tous le s co mpos an ts, accessoires et au tres par ti es doivent [ Most frequent English dictionary requests: Please click on the reason for your vote: This is not a good example for the translation above. The wrong words are highlighted. It does not match my search. It should not be summed up with the orange entries The translation is wrong or of bad quality.
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- "Eros" translation into French!
A hydraulic power unit consists of an engine, pump, valves, hydraulic [ Un groupe hydraulique comprend un moteur, une pompe, des valves, des blocs [ Care for them, teach them fun tricks, [ Amusez-vous avec eux, apprenez-leur des tours [ The following information has been [ Les informations suivantes constituent un guide des dangers [ In addition, access to the pool of technical skills held within the Group [ We have seen [ If you have an MTD garden [ Avec un tracteur de jardin MTD, vous pouvez [ We supply window and [ En combinaison avec la pompe [ He must guarantee [