Homi K. Bhabha (Routledge Critical Thinkers)

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Said argues that the way people in the West discussed the Orient developed a set of discourses of orientalism which set up an allegedly superior Western self in relation to an allegedly inferior non- Western other. Indeed, the academic study of the Orient in fact created its field of study, its object, by forcing together many varied cultures as simply 'non- Western'. Philosophically speaking, orientalism begins by assuming that there is a radical distinction between East and West, and then proceeds to treat everything as evidence to back up this assumption. New evidence can never be entirely new, because all it can possibly do is confirm the basic distinction orientalism has already created.

It is, then, more revealing to see how orientalism fits together as a consistent way of thinking, than to decide if orientalism is somehow actually accurate in its descriptions of the East. Indeed, orientalism tells us less about the Orient than it does about the West. If we look at what else the West was doing at the same time as studying the Orient, we see colonial expansion and domination, and this is not mere coincidence: Said argues that orientalism created an object that could be manipulated for political and economic purposes.

Bhabha finds Said's argument very helpful, but he wants to ask certain supplementary questions about colonial power. He is interested in a psychoanalytic approach to that power, and his work suggests that colonial discourse only seems to be successful in its domination of the colonized. Underneath its apparent success, this discourse is secretly marked by radical anxiety about its aims, its claims, and its achievements.

So, we might ask the question, 'What does colonial discourse want? This domination depends on the assertion of difference: However, colonial authority secretly— rather, unconsciously— knows that this supposed difference is undermined by the real sameness of the colonized population. This unconscious knowledge is Homi K. Importantly, the tension between the illusion of difference and the reality of sameness leads to anxiety. Indeed, for Bhabha colonial power is anxious, and never gets what it wants— a stable, final distinction between the colonizers and the colonized.

This anxiety opens a gap in colonial discourse— a gap that can be exploited by the colonized, the oppressed. As I have suggested, this emphasis on agency is Bhabha' s originality, as his close readings seek out moments when the colonized resisted the colonizer, despite structures of violence and domination. According to Bhabha, Said minimizes spaces of resistance by producing a picture of the West endlessly and brutally subjugating the East.

We should listen to the subaltern voice— the voice of the oppressed peoples falling outside histories of colonialism. None the less, Bhabha is following Said's thought very closely: Bhabha's post- colonial criticism merely shifts our focus, so we see both colonizer and colonized.

Like Said, Bhabha suggests that traditional ways of thinking about the world have often been complicit with longstanding inequalities between nations and peoples. His work operates on the assumption that a traditional philosophical sense of the relationship between one's self and others, between subject and object, can be very damaging in its consequences- something we see too often in the encounter between different cultures. If you know only too well where your identity ends and the rest of the world begins, it can be easy to define that world as other, different, inferior, and threatening to your identity and interests.

If cultures are taken to have stable, discrete identities, then the divisions between cultures can always become antagonistic. As the most famous example of these concepts, Bhabha's writing emphasizes the hybridity of cultures, which on one level simply refers to the mixed-ness, or even 'impurity' of cultures— so long as we don't imagine that any culture is really pure. This term refers to an original mixed-ness within every form of identity. In the case of cultural identities, hybridity refers to the fact that cultures are not discrete phenomena; instead, they are always in contact with one another, and this contact leads to cultural mixed-ness.

Many literary writers have taken an interest in expressing hybrid cultural identities and using hybrid cultural forms— for example, novelist Salman Rushdie. Additionally, many non-literary writers like sociologists and anthropologists have explored this emphasis. Their writings undermine any claims to pure or authentic cultural identities or forms. But Bhabha insists less on hybridity than on hybridization; in other words, he insists on hybridity' s ongoing process.

In fact, for Bhabha there are no cultures that come together leading to hybrid forms; instead, cultures are the consequence of attempts to still the flux of cultural hybridities.

Homi K. Bhabha

Instead of beginning with an idea of pure cultures interacting, Bhabha directs our attention to what happens on the borderlines of cultures, to see what happens in-between cultures. He thinks about this through what he calls the liminal, meaning that which is on the border or the threshold. The term stresses the idea that what is in-between settled Why Bhabha? To give privilege to liminality is to undermine solid, authentic culture in favour of unexpected, hybrid, and fortuitous cultures.

It suggests that the proper location of culture is between the overly familiar forms of official culture. Because Bhabha focuses on signification the creation of meaning rather than physical locations borders between nations , his position has been dismissed as idealistic and unrealistic. However, when he refers to the location of culture, this location is not metaphorical as opposed to literal.

Instead, the location is both spatial and temporal: Hybridity and liminality do not refer only to space, but also to time: The emphasis on hybridity and the liminal is important because colonial discourses have often set up distinctions between pure cultures. Colonial power, for Bhabha, worked to divide the world into self and other, in order to justify the material inequalities central to colonial rule.

When Bhabha comes to study colonial power, he argues that it is necessary to do something different. In other words, to continue thinking in terms of self and other, but simply to reverse the value of self and other so that the colonizer becomes morally inferior, is not a productive approach and in fact does not offer any real change. For example, to challenge the oppression of women by merely turning the tables and oppressing men instead is not going to offer any long-term solutions for anyone. This is just as true of the legacies of colonialism and racism.

As I have suggested, Bhabha' s' approach highlights the ways colonialism has been much more than the simple domination of one group by another. He stresses the unexpected forms of resistance that can be found in the history of the colonized, and the equally unexpected anxieties that plagued the colonizer despite his apparent mastery. Most often, he achieves these ends simultaneously, by picking on one phenomenon in which both colonizer and colonized participated, such as the circulation of colonial stereotypes. In offering his account of colonialism, Bhabha is transforming our sense of both the method of study and the object of study.

Bhabha' s project does not limit itself to the study of colonialism. In the same way as do post- structuralist thinkers, Bhabha challenges and transforms our ideas of what it means to be modern. Particularly in his later work, he extends his analysis to modernity in general— the ideas of scientific and material progress that mark the modern West, and are expressed in its globalized culture. In fact, it would be misleading to think of the study of colonialism as in any way narrow or of interest only to historians. Bhabha' s point is that we need to look again at modernity using perspectives drawn from the experiences of colonized people— he argues that we need a post-colonial perspective on modernity, and that modernity and post- colonialism are inescapably connected.

Our major task now is to probe further the cunning of Western modernity, its historical ironies, its disjunctive temporalities, its much- vaunted crisis of representation. It is important to say that it would change the values of all critical work if the emergence of modernity were given a colonial and post-colonial genealogy.

We must never forget that the establishment of Homi K. Bhabha colonized space profoundly informs and historically contests the emergence of those so-called post-Enlightenment values associated with the notion of modern stability. The narratives of modernity seem to be coherent and serene in their self-confidence, telling of democratic and technological progress. However, that coherence and serenity are bought at the expense of denying historical reality.

Modernity has repressed its colonial origins, and, in a sense, Bhabha' s project is the necessary analysis of modernity to uncover this repression. It is in fact like the psychoanalysis of modernity, an idea that will seem initially confusing, given that we usually think psychoanalysis is the analysis of individuals rather than groups, nations, etc. However, psychoanalysis is concerned with interpreting stories, and groups have their own stories, just like the stories of the analysed patient.

In fact, psychoanalysis suggests all identities are incomplete, whether they are individual or collective identities. This incompleteness is not a problem to be solved, and we could never in principle have a full or complete identity. Instead, the incompleteness of identity needs to be acknowledged. So, modernity has seemed to be stable, with its own coherent narratives of progress.

Instead, we should see modernity as something that needs to be hybridized: Bhabha' s project foregrounds modernity's complex hybridity. In each case, chapters explore ideas found in The Location of Culture, illustrating them with Bhabha's many varied writings on art,' photography, cinema, and so on. In several chapters the ideas are applied in more detail to the reading of specific literary texts. The book works through various key terms, building a sense of Bhabha's work that begins with his essential method, and moves on to look at different applications of this method in various colonial and postcolonial contexts.

The next chapter, 'Reading', gives an outline of Bhabha's influences in the work of post- structuralist thinkers Jacques Derrida and Michel Foucault. It moves on to look at examples of Bhabha's poststructuralist reading method, his interpretations of John Stuart Mill and Frantz Fanon.

Following that, the chapter on 'The Stereotype' looks at how Bhabha reinterprets the discourses of colonialism, finding an anxiety central to the discourses of the colonizer. This idea of anxiety is developed further in the next chapter, on 'Mimicry', which examines the ways that the colonized retain their power to act despite the apparent domination of the colonizer. These two chapters explain Bhabha's early work on colonialism. The chapters that follow explain the contemporary applications of his ideas.

The chapter on 'The Uncanny' explains how Bhabha uses psychoanalytic categories to understand colonialism and post- colonialism: This conceptual structure is extended in Chapters 6 Why Bhabha? Bhabha' s work can be applied to nations and to what is beyond nations— transnationalism and globalization. These chapters together show how Bhabha' s thought transforms our ideas about nations and, increasingly, transnationalism or globalization. They point to future directions in Bhabha's ideas. Finally, Chapter 8, 'After Bhabha', explains positive and negative responses to Bhabha's work, suggesting ways people have either contested or transformed Bhabha's analyses.

The section on 'Further reading' gives detailed bibliographic information on Bhabha's writings, and on related texts, allowing exploration of his ideas in greater depth. Each chapter maintains a balance between on the one hand fully contextualizing Bhabha's ideas, emphasizing the ways that we cannot simply extract his concepts and apply them elsewhere, and on the other hand cutting through that contextual information to give you a logical core and method for reading any text. It is an evident paradox of Bhabha's status that, despite his influence on so many thinkers from art history to legal studies, much of his most influential work is apparently strictly and narrowly situated within colonial literature and other forms of colonial archive.

To explain how this apparent paradox comes about, I will first introduce Bhabha's reading method.

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It looks at his reading method, the texts he reads with this method, and our experience of reading his own texts. Bhabha' s criticism is important because of his attention to anxiety and agency, but a key point is that he finds their traces through his reading methods. This chapter, and the next, are about the key influences on Bhabha and how he has used and developed them. Critically, he has developed their models of reading in directions that are initially surprising. In one interview Bhabha says: What do these two forms of ravishment mean?

This chapter will answer this question by first looking at Bhabha' s own prose. It then turns to look at the way this critical thinking works in relation to liberal political traditions. From here, it turns to the relation between critical thinking and Marxist traditions, and focuses on Bhabha' s reading of another central influence, Frantz Fanon. Throughout I suggest that Bhabha can be read poetically.

As I will suggest, many complexities in reading Bhabha' s work derive from its poetic qualities: The modes of reading to which Bhabha is attracted are literary: His readings of other writers, from many different contexts and disciplines, have this literary quality in common. This quality can cause difficulties because colonialism seems more a matter of political and legal documents than poems, plays, and novels.

Bhabha seems to be making a 'category error', applying inappropriate reading techniques to the texts of colonialism. Additionally, the meanings of Bhabha' s own texts can be elusive. They seem to be constantly undermining or frustrating mean-ing, never quite susceptible to being pinned down: As he says himself, however, this sense of frustration involves the reader in his work: The reader, for me, must feel engaged at all levels of wit-nessing, in the very midst of unfolding of a theoretical idea. For me, writing is really a contingent and dramatic process. Bhabha' s lit- erariness in his reading and writing, and the active engagement it requires of his readers, is central to understanding his work, as this chapter will show.

This is particularly useful for Bhabha because reading him can be initially confusing. His essays are complex, fragmented mosaics of quotation, neologism, poetry, and cultural analysis. Further, they are not coherent mosaics in which all the pieces fit together harmo-niously: They are mixed critical texts that use concepts or quotations in a patchwork critical form.

This kind of writing requires a straightforward introduction, which this book provides; however, this does not mean that you should avoid reading Bhabha' s original writing, which has its own poetic logic. I want to foreground one particular explanation of how Bhabha writes. It comes from the work of political psychologist Ashis Nandy He suggests that the way we write cultural criticism has its own political significance, especially when that culture is as politically charged as colonial culture.

Nandy proposes that 'The first identifier of a post-colonial consciousness cannot but be an attempt to develop a language of dissent which would not make sense— and will not try to make any sense in the capitals of the global knowledge industry. A postcolonial form of knowledge might well seem 'non- sense', depending on where you are standing. Indeed, Bhabha' s difficult style would then be a particularly suitable way to write post-colonial criticism and theory.

It is helpful to keep this kind of argument in mind when you read Bhabha. Bhabha' s work does not pretend to be poetry as such, but it shows poetic qualities. It incorporates a range of styles, juxtaposing historical descriptions, psychoanalytic analogy, and literary criticism.

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This is not inappropriate, for philosophy, economics, history, and so on, all have long histories of writers who explore the rhetorical possibilities of the languages in which they have written. Further, poets and novelists have often done 'the reverse', incorporating elements of philosophy, economics, and history in their work.

Bhabha' s writing is profitably understood as working in this exploratory manner. Indeed, many of the writers by whom Bhabha is influenced also write in this way, and it is to some of these writers that I will now turn.

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Du Bois , and Albert Memmi ; His influences are so numerous that I will focus on two of Bhabha' s key influences, Jacques Derrida and Michel Foucault, and on Bhabha' s development of his sense of critical thinking as a process. Looking at how Bhabha reads Reading 1 1 these two thinkers, and particularly at the model of reading drawn from their work, will usefully introduce how he reads generally. Two terms will help get to the core of Bhabha's reading method— 'iteration' and 'the statement'. The former comes from Derrida, the latter from Foucault. Iteration refers to the necessary repeatability of any mark, idea, or statement if it is to be meaningful.

A mark that could occur only once would be meaningless for example, a squiggly line that I claimed replaced '0': Iteration— repeatability or iterability— is one of the processes from which meaning derives. However, this repeatability is not just the simple reproduction of identical marks in other times and places. Importantly, the repetition means that those marks, the statement, must reappear in different contexts: At the same time, however, it will continue to be spoken and written Born in Algeria, Jacques Derrida was a French philosopher best known for his deconstruction of the Western philosophical tradition, By deconstruction is meant, among other things, showing how apparently simple binary oppositions— for example presence as opposed to absence, or speech as opposed to writing— are in fact extremely complex.

Derrida' s thinking is concerned with the 'absolutely other 7 , with what is beyond thought, His Of Grammatology argues that the opposition between speech and writing has been central to Western thought: This assumption goes hand in hand with a rejection of the 'other'. However, Derrida argues that 'speech' and 'writing' are, in fact, more similar than different: In fact, much of Derrida' s work has been concerned with writing, and philosophies of language, yet Derrida is not a philosopher of language, but a philosopher through language; his writings strive for literary effects, with meaning beyond what can be formalized in a system, and in this too his influence on Bhabha is clear.

Various key terms in Bhabha can be traced back to Derrida; iteration, writing, difference, and deferral. Michel Foucault was a French thinker whose work focused on the history of systems of thought. His early work looked at how madness , medicine and prisons were understood , and how these understandings changed over time. For example, in the eighteenth century criminals were punished by physical pain and torture, yet by the beginning of the nineteenth century, they were imprisoned.

For Foucault, this change suggests that how the body was treated and what people thought was human and 'humane' had changed radically, Foucault' s later writings are an ambitious history of sexuality, tracing constructions of the self from classical antiquity to the present; these writings tend towards intricate, highly detailed 'micrological' studies, as opposed to larger macro-scale political or economic studies ; Central to all his work is what he called 'discourse': Bhabha 12 often finds parallels between apparently different disciplines; there is more in common between biology and economics at one time, than there is in biology over a period of time, or between two kinds of biology either side of a radical change or 'epistemological break 7 Although Foucault himself does not often discuss colonialism, his work on discourse has been central to postcolonial theory, inspiring Edward Said's analysis of orientalism as a discourse, which I discuss further in the next chapter.

Bhabha situates the Derridean idea of iteration in the context of the 'statement'. This is a term with a specific meaning that he takes from the work of Foucault, another great influence. Foucault explored how disciplines, bodies of knowledge and institutions- many of the most important of which have been colonial— developed. His work helps us analyse 'colonial statements'— statements that make up colonial discourse.

We usually feel we know what a statement means, but this feeling only arises because we know the context in which it is made, how it fits in with a body of knowledge. These understandings are, however, always imperfect, as Bhabha remarks: This is a difference which comes about through iteration, and it is something Bhabha finds in many colonial statements. His reading method is alive to the subtle differences in meaning that colonial authority is unable to control because of the logic of iteration.

Critical positions do not, on this iterative logic, stand external to the situation under consideration: Just as in the case of a stereotype see Chapter 3 , the fact that statements only seem to have a fixed meaning, or that their stabilization is an uncertain, hesitant product of disciplinary processes, has implications for the study of statements and the discourses of which they are part.

Bhabha writes of critical thinking as a process, rather than the adoption of pre- arranged, pre-deter mined positions; he refers to 'the boundary and location of the event of theoretical critique which does not contain the truth'. If we already know exactly what we think before we start reading anything, then we never quite start reading the thing itself: A reading procedure like this is just as set on stabilizing itself as colonial discourse, and is just as marked by its uncertainties. So, Bhabha writes the following: Reading 13 The 'true' is always marked and informed by the ambivalence of the process of emergence itself, the productivity of meanings that construct counter-knowledges in media res, in the very act of agonism [struggle], within the terms of a negotiation rather than a negation of oppositional and antagonis-tic elements.

Political positions are not simply identifiable as progressive or reactionaiy, bourgeois or radical, prior to the act of critique engagee, or out-side the terms and conditions of their discursive address. It is often said that politics is the art of the possible. Utopian political projects— Marxism, for example— are often said to fail to take account of practical political realities, with their unrealistically pure proposals coming from an imaginary external position. We are enjoined to be realistic, and to think about the messy practicalities of our political lives.

Although this latter position is not quite Bhabha' s 'be realistic' merely reverses the terms of Utopian political visions and says that our present situation is as good as things will ever get , it has a similar emphasis on messiness and hybridity. Bhabha acknowledges that the middle of things is simply where we find ourselves, and no amount of elaborate thinking will ever get us out of this contingent situation, so we had better get used to working at our projects with no absolute guarantees, no final assurances, and no excessive rigidity of purpose.

What we have is likely to become clear only after the fact, if at all. That might sound as if Bhabha has no principles, but it is better to think about a lack of finality: In 'The Commitment to Theory' he makes clear that the definition of principles, and political objects towards which to work or owe allegiance, is important and valid; these principles and objectives he thinks of as 'activist'.

However, he also feels that there is another option, the 'theorist' option, with different 'operational qualities'. If this is a division of labour, then the theorist has the time to devote to the knotty difficulties of thought which is always on the move and self- revising. After all, the construction of political subjectivity, of any type, is from the beginning caught up in untidy and contingent process: Textuality is not simply a second-order ideological expression or a verbal symptom of a pre-given political subject.

The social is something that is constructed through forms of shaping rhetoric and discourse: For example, if we follow the metaphor 'a city is a living Homi K. Bhabha 14 organism' to its logical implications, then various questions follow: In the context of the social, metaphoricity has important consequences for political thinking. For Bhabha, as for Derrida, the social is something inflected by language's slips and hesitations. Accordingly, to have a full sense of the social the theorist needs to attend to language as language, with all its accompanying difficulties.

The theorist, for Bhabha, is very much on the side of writing. It is also from this, in part, that Bhabha develops his sense of 'the subject'. Just as there is no pre-existent object called society, or the social, there is no simple pre-given subject. Subjects, of course, act on objects. However, what is done constructs the subject as much as the subject does it: So, in the sentence, 'the men hunt the elephant', the men could be 'the elephant- hunters', defined by their actions.

Moreover, as we cannot control many of the things that happen to us, critics often refer to the subject as constructed. For example, we have no choice about our place of birth, and this plays a role in our 'subjectivity' or sense of identity, for example constructing us as Japanese subjects prior to our individual choices. Choices made by other people construct our identities, and our own choices in turn construct and transform our identities: If we think about this construction in terms of politics, we can say that we are simultaneously actors, making political choices, and objects, the results of those choices: In this way, subjectivity is always in process, and our subjective identities never take on the fixedness and solidity of objects.

Bhabha writes that 'The epistemological distance between subject and object, inside and outside, that is part of the cultural binarism that emerges from relativism, is now replaced by a social process of enunciation. To be a knower is to be in process. So, Bhabha' s understanding of the logic of iteration, and the subjectivity it implies, leads him to a specific sense of critical thought as a matter of process.

Further, Bhabha' s ideas about this critical thinking make him question two major traditions of political thought, liberalism and Marxism, and it is to these traditions that I now turn. His most famous works are 'On Liberty' and 'Utilitarianism' Among other topics, he is associated with political economy, utilitarian philosophy, and liberalism.

Bhabha is interested in Mill's liberalism and utilitarianism in particular. For liberal philosophy, the only justification for political organizations is the serving of individual interests. This combines with utilitarianism— the principle of utility, according to which the objective happiness of the greatest number of people is central.

For Mill, our rights are on the happiness that comes from pursuing our deepest unchanging interests So we are free to pursue our individual interests except when Reading 15 those interests interfere with the permanent interests of other individuals. For Mill, then, liberty is defined in negative terms: Further, this idea' of liberty means that political interaction takes place between already well defined individual subjects. In Bhabha's analysis, the creation of a political subject, the subject of the political process, is 'a discursive event'. Mill's essay is a classic statement of British liberalism, defending the right of all individuals to pursue their own aims in their own ways, so long as those ways do not impede the legitimate interests of others.

Mill was not only a philosopher, but was also actively involved in the administration of the East India Company, and the connection between these two aspects of his life makes him an important figure for Bhabha's model of colonial discourse analysis. Bhabha looks specifically at the chapter 'On the Liberty of Thought and Discussion', which tries to formulate a public rhetoric adequate to fair conversational or dialogical exchange, in other words a rhetoric which would work for the necessarily ongoing day- today business of politics.

Indeed, Bhabha argues that it is 'here [in a foundational liberal text] that the myth of the "transparency" of the human agent and the reasonableness of political action is most forcefully asserted'. Their conclusion may be true, but it might be false for anything they know: Liberalism imagines a subject which requires a worked-out contradiction: We have to know what and how people who disagree with us are thinking, in order to better answer their charges and clarify our position.

Mill's text, however, implies that this process is difficult to control, gradually taking over the subject which seems to be directing it.

Homi dpvcasting.lfmgroup.it : The Postmodern and the Postcolonial

This process, as outlined above, seems to be endless: In fact, according to Bhabha, Mill has outlined 'the realization of the political idea at the ambivalent point of textual address, its emergence through a form of political projection'. To be genuinely HomiK. Bhabha 16 public, the discourse of politics cannot maintain absolutely self-sufficient and fully representative political actors, acting without division or doubt and with complete transparency.

Each actor or subject is divided, and each constructed identity is always split. Interestingly, Bhabha' s reading of Mill treats this split as if it was already there, waiting to happen, no matter what Mill may have wanted to say. This is a further distinguishing mark of Bhabha' s reading method. Bhabha suggests the following: That is, what underlies a political argument is the abil-ity to read between the lines, to understand what the opponent is doing.

Mill's argument despite himself about the political subject has the same structure that enables Bhabha' s reading. So, Bhabha argues the following: The political subject has difference within itself. For Bhabha, if— even in this classic liberal text— such a split is necessary, then there can be no essential identity to any political subject. This has a further consequence for contemporary political culture: As in Mill, or Bhabha's version of Mill, this means there is no getting around the negotiation and construction of cultures and communities.

The reading process is ongoing, and what this process uncovers in this particular example is the equally open production of social and political identities. It also has consequences for political reading in general, and especially Marxist reading. While Bhabha is very respectful of activist projects, some critics have misunderstood his position.

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This denial of specific histories coincides with a denial of the complexities of colonialism. In contrast to this, Bhabha writes of the 'language of critique'. This language Reading However, he emphatically does not think of this dissolution as the production of a unity, a higher term: In dialectical arguments, one position, the thesis, comes up against its opposite, the antithesis, and these two are then resolved into a synthesis, a 'higher term' which becomes another thesis in turn; I will discuss this below.

We cannot assume that we already know what the political is, or what it means to think politically. View all 3 comments. Nov 19, Messayu Syahayuniar rated it it was amazing. This book helps us to understand Bhabha Concepts more easier than his original book. I love this book!!! And recommended book for you if you though Bhabha's book was so complex. Aug 06, Joan rated it liked it. I've got a better grasp on Bhabha, but there's still some basic things I still just don't get. MS rated it really liked it Dec 09, Alise Ilus rated it liked it Dec 18, Tina rated it really liked it May 12, Den Nieuwen Hans rated it really liked it Mar 17, Mary rated it liked it Aug 19, Kyla rated it really liked it Apr 19, Cassie rated it liked it Jan 04, Teet rated it it was amazing Mar 14, Tasneem rated it liked it Jul 03, Sreddy rated it liked it Jan 27, Orhan Sener rated it really liked it Feb 28, Maevet rated it really liked it Dec 29, Sirvan Barzanji rated it it was amazing Oct 05, Not, according to Gilles Deleuze, in order to be clever, but because thinking transforms life.

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This updated second edition explores developments and… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Critical Thinkers. Edward Said 2nd Edition By Bill Ashcroft , Pal Ahluwalia Edward Said is perhaps best known as the author of the landmark study Orientalism, a book which changed the face of critical theory and shaped the emerging field of post-colonial studies, and for his controversial journalism on the Palestinian political situation. Hannah Arendt By Simon Swift Hannah Arendt's work offers a powerful critical engagement with the cultural and philosophical crises of mid-twentieth-century Europe.

Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick By Jason Edwards Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick was one of the most significant literary theorists of the last forty years and a key figure in contemporary queer theory. His work on literary, artistic, and musical forms, his devastating indictment of modern industrial society, and his profound grasp of Western culture from Homer to Hollywood have made him one… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Critical Thinkers. Stephen Greenblatt By Mark Robson Stephen Greenblatt is the most important exponent of 'new historicism', a dynamic critical movement which rejects the traditional reliance on individual canonical texts, exploring a multitude of other, more marginal works and voices.

Questioning not just literary but social, political and cultural… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Critical Thinkers. Theorists of Modernist Poetry T. Hulme, Ezra Pound By Rebecca Beasley Modernist poetry heralded a radical new aesthetic of experimentation, pioneering new verse forms and subjects, and changing the very notion of what it meant to be a poet. Hulme and Ezra Pound, three of the most influential figures of the modernist movement, and… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Critical Thinkers.

Paul Virilio By Ian James Paul Virilio is a challenging and original thinker whose work on technology, state power and war is increasingly relevant today. It introduces key ideas, and includes detailed discussion of the work of two key thinkers in this area, Manuel Castells and Donna Haraway, as well as outlining the… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Critical Thinkers.

Exploring the connections between their theories, Parsons pays particular… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Critical Thinkers. Concepts from their work have become part of the fabric of novel criticism today, influencing theorists, authors and readers… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Critical Thinkers. Antonio Gramsci By Steven Jones For readers encountering Gramsci for the first time, Steve Jones covers key elements of his thought through detailed discussion and studies the historical context of the theorist's thought, offers examples of putting Gramsci's ideas into practice in the analysis of contemporary culture and… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Critical Thinkers.

This volume explores his writings and their influence on postcolonial theory, introducing in clear and accessible language the key concepts of his work, such as 'ambivalence', 'mimicry', 'hybridity'… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Critical Thinkers. Louis Althusser By Luke Ferretter Best known for his theories of ideology and its impact on politics and culture, Louis Althusser revolutionized Marxist theory.

6 editions of this work

Jacques Lacan By Sean Homer Jacques Lacan is one of the most challenging and controversial of contemporary thinkers, as well as the most influential psychoanalyst since Freud. Stuart Hall By James Procter James Procter's introduction places Hall's work within its historical contexts, providing a clear guide to his key ideas and influences, as well as to his critics and his intellectual legacy.

Simone de Beauvoir By Ursula Tidd Simone de Beauvoir's groundbreaking work has transformed the way we think about gender and identity. A leading figure in French existentialism, Beauvoir's concepts of 'becoming woman' and of woman as '… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Critical Thinkers. Julia Kristeva By Noelle McAfee One of the most original thinkers of the twentieth century, Julia Kristeva has been driving forward the fields of literary and cultural studies since the s.